After our division closed on the Sieg River, it shifted east and set up a forty-mile line of defense along the south bank of the Sieg.  Our mission was to guard the left flank of the US First Army driving east to encircle German industry in the Ruhr Valley in conjunction with British forces crossing the Rhine to the north.  For about two weeks, our 303rd Engineer Battalion constituted the division reserve with the 78th Reconnaissance Cavalry Troop and Company D, 744th Tank Battalion attached ready to strike immediately at any point along the forty mile front if the Germans attempted to penetrate Division lines.[117] Anticipating we would soon cross the Sieg River to overrun the Ruhr Pocket, we engineers busily reconnoitered the riverbanks for good crossing sites.  We found the Germans were not defending the river very strongly. 


My company was sleeping soundly in a small German town about three miles back from the Sieg River when tremendous explosions nearby suddenly awakened us.  Checking quickly, we discovered the 195th Field Artillery Battalion of 8-inch howitzers had moved in and begun firing interdiction rounds directly over us.  Rushing over to the nearest howitzer, I asked the battery commander to please stop, but he replied, “Sorry.  We must complete our fire missions.”  Since this artillery was undoubtedly under my father’s control, I was tempted to call him for help.  However this was in the middle of the night!  Instead, I directed First Sergeant Titus to move us immediately to another location.  My entire company of about 175 men then pulled up in the middle of the night and moved to the next village, rousting German civilians as needed to put us up for the night.  Such are the vicissitudes of war!


Meantime, on 26 March our 311th Timberwolves relieved 1st Division units defending seven miles along the Sieg River between Blankenberg on the west and Stromberg on the east.  On the night of 29 March, they extended another five miles east to Hamm on the Sieg.

Bridge of the Charly Company helps the men to cross the Sieg-River at the little town Etzbach.

By 1 April, the U.S. Ninth Army in the north and our First Army in the south had surrounded the Ruhr industrial area of Germany, snapping pincers shut around 400,000 Wehrmacht defenders.  Eighteen US divisions, including our own 78th Division, were committed to reduce the pocket.[118] Since the Ruhr containing the industrial cities of Dusseldorf, Essen, Remscheid, and Wuppertal, was the armament center for the Nazis, no one doubted the war was about over.[119]


Early in April, my company was directed to conduct a feint by erecting two “Dogma Charlie” footbridge spans into the Sieg River at night and then withdrawing.  The site was several miles west of where we would soon cross the river.  The 78th Reconnaissance Cavalry Troop would provide local security while Division Artillery would shell the far bank to keep curious Krauts in their holes.  I assigned the mission to Lieutenant Siegele’s 1st Platoon.  In describing the operation, Timm’s Technician Fifth Class Ben Chalmers later described the feint as follows:


After dinner, the Lieutenant explained our assignment.  We rehearsed our parts and set out.  The river banks were so flat they wouldn’t afford us any cover if fired upon. . .  As we rolled into an open flat plain, a stream of tracer bullets arched across the sky towards us.  T/5 Monaghan, our truck driver, put our truck behind a house until the firing subsided… Then Monaghan sped toward the river… as that probing finger of 20mm fire kept searching for us. . . I was on the second H-frame as we started toward the river.  The cavalry doughboys were spread out around us, but you couldn’t see them.  The artillery was banging them regularly on the opposite shore.  Everything was going fine until someone set off a flare, and believe me, all of us thought our goose was cooked!  The flare soon died down and nothing happened, so we kept going.  It didn’t take long to put up our two sections, and it didn’t take long to pull out. . . Two hours later, we were crawling into our sacks.[120]


On 5 April, the 97th Division relieved the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the 311th.   When the time came to cross the Sieg River, the 309th and 310th Infantry regiments were to assault across abreast with our 311th Infantry in Division Reserve.  Our Division objective was the large industrial city of Wuppertal, 50 miles to the northwest.  Three German Volksgrenedier divisions and the 11th Panzer Division opposed us.[121]


 The 1st Battalion of the 311th was attached to the 309th Infantry, which would attack through the 1st Battalion’s sector in crossing the Sieg River on 6 April.  The 3rd Battalion was likewise attached to the 310th Infantry for its concurrent attack across the Sieg further east.  Both battalions would revert to regimental control a couple days later when the 311th would join the attack between the 309th and 311th Infantry regiments.[122]


My Dogma Charlie Company had the job of crossing the foot elements of the two assaulting regiments, freeing A and B Companies of the 303rd Engineers to advance promptly with their regiments across the river.  Division vehicles would cross when Corps engineers completed construction of a large Bailey bridge over the Sieg at Wissen, which the 2d Battalion of our 311th Regiment would secure while in reserve at the center of the crossings.


During the 5th of April, my three platoons reconnoitered their respective crossing sites along the rain-swollen Sieg River and planned their respective crossing efforts.  Lieutenants Siegele and Monroe, who were going to cross the 309th and 310th Infantry regiments, waited until nightfall to check their crossing points, but Lieutenant Timm undertook to cross at the Wissen bridge site in daylight, as described later.


That night Staff Sergeant Paul Steffen and Corporal Walter Underwood from Lieutenant Siegele’s 1st Platoon reconnoitered where they would cross the foot elements of the 309th Infantry near the main street of Dreisel along the river bank.  Finding Teller antitank mines dug into the street, they started removing them, but Krauts across the Sieg opened fire on them.  After quickly withdrawing, they soon returned with Underwood’s 3rd Squad and removed several mined road blocks all over the town, drawing no further fire.  By dawn, the rest of the 1st Platoon had arrived and assembled sections of their footbridge behind some houses.  Having no infantry for local security, Lieutenant Siegele deployed his three squads in houses to cover him while he, Technician Fourth Class Frank Momot, and Private Russell Gaudet hauled a line across the river to use in emplacing the anchor cable.  When the three walked toward the riverbank, Krauts opened up on them with machine gun and rifle fire, hitting Gaudet in the neck and back and creasing Seigele’s helmet.  Siegele's overwatching squads immediately responded with their rifles.  Gaudet managed to run behind a house, but his wounds were so severe he could go no further.  Sergeant Ernest Collins ran back through the firefight to get a medic.  In two hours of fighting, Siegele’s platoon accounted for eight Krauts.  The skirmish ended when friendly infantry crossed the river upstream and circled around behind the Krauts, capturing those who were left. 


Lt. Siegele then tried to swim across the river, but the current was too swift.  They finally crossed to the other side in an assault boat and positioned the anchor cable.  This cable enabled them to install the floating footbridge quite readily, despite the strong current.  However, the river was wider than they had anticipated, and they didn’t have enough sections to complete the bridge.  They remedied this quickly by placing a section of the Dogma Charlie expedient footbridge at each end of the floating bridge.[123] Foot elements of the 309th Infantry proceeded over this footbridge and began their assault of the Ruhr Pocket.


On that same night, Lt. Monroe led Staff Sergeant Karl Hanville and Sergeant John Stache to reconnoiter the site where they would cross foot elements of the 310th Infantry over the Sieg River at a little town near Hamm.  Since the town had not yet been checked by American troops, they walked in from Hamm.  They found the Krauts had done a good job in blowing a long railroad bridge and a stone automobile bridge across the Sieg.  The river was 145 feet wide, swift and deep and three hundred yards of flat, open ground lay on the other side.  This was not a very promising site!


When Infantry deployed along the banks the next morning at 0500, Lieutenant Monroe’s platoon moved in with footbridge equipment under a heavy fog.  Everything was quiet.  Upon learning that the truckload of assault boats for the initial crossing had taken a wrong road and was miles away, a couple of the engineers tried to swim the river, but the current was too swift.  Finally the boats arrived, and six men paddled across to secure an anchor cable for their footbridge.  Upon reaching the far shore, they were surprised to find two Krauts sitting in foxholes along the riverbank.  Fortunately, the Krauts surrendered quietly and the engineers secured their cable. The 3rd Squad began building the footbridge while the rest of the platoon ferried infantry across in assault boats.  When the bridge was partially done, one of the assault boats crashed into it, tearing out the anchor cable and breaking the bridge into several parts.  While they reassembled the bridge, another boat capsized, losing all equipment in it.  After hours of backbreaking work, they completed the footbridge, and the rest of the 310th Infantry regiment crossed to commence their assault into the Ruhr Pocket.  So far, no enemy fire had fallen on the bridge, but now that the work was done, Kraut shells started coming in.  Meantime the infantry captured a group of Krauts who had dug in along a railroad track only two hundred yards from the bridge.  Apparently they hadn’t fired earlier because of the fog.[124]


Meanwhile, Lieutenant Timm had observed his site near Wissen during daylight from a distance, since it was obviously under observation by Krauts on the far shore.  Dismounting from their jeep at the edge of woods, Timm, Sergeant Stephen Monoski, and Technician Fifth Class John Kapitan examined the area.  In turning around the jeep, Private First Class Simone Lagravinese got it stuck momentarily and then drove over to pick up Timm’s party.  Moments later, two Kraut shells exploded where the jeep had been stuck!


Early the next morning, 311th Infantrymen had managed to scramble across twisted remains of the blown bridge at Wissen and secure the far shore by capturing eighteen Krauts in a factory.  These were the Krauts who had fired earlier at Siegele’s platoon farther downstream.  While this was going on, Timm’s 2nd Platoon tied bridle-lines for their footbridge to the downstream side of the blown bridge at Wissen and installed their 80-foot footbridge in time to cross a battalion of infantry before daylight.[125]


As Corps engineers began arriving to build a Bailey span across the gap in the blown bridge, I crossed the footbridge and discovered the Krauts had also blown a smaller bridge over a creek on the main road barely two hundred yards north of Wissen.  Returning quickly to Lieutenant Timm, who was in the process of regrouping his platoon, I directed him to walk his men over the footbridge and undertake to repair the second blown bridge by the time Corps completed its Bailey span at Wissen.  Timm has recalled undertaking this task as follows:


       Right after lunch, Captain Camm assigned us the Wissen Creek job that turned out to be a combat engineer’s dream.  We discovered a lumberyard a couple of hundred yards from the near shore abutment and also found a French enforced-laborer with a horse.  Convincing him to work for us instead of the Krauts, we used his horse to drag lumber to the construction site.  Using wrenches from a nearby railroad shop, my men removed rails from a nearby railroad track.  Meantime Captain Camm and driver, Crouse, found a way to get their jeep across a shallow ford in the Sieg River and let us use the jeep to drag the rails for use as stringers on our bridge.  The rails were lighter than American rails, so our Engineer Bridge Card could only give us an idea of how many rails were needed to carry US tanks and other heavy military loads over the bridge.  We decided to pepper in as many rails as would fit.


       Using our new Dodge personnel carrier with our now famous A-frame hoist, we constructed a two-bent bridge and worked all night under the truck’s lights.  We had to take one break when the Krauts sent in their bed check Charlie aircraft to spook us.  We spiked decking into four-by-four timber spacers to keep the rails from turning over and were putting on the finishing touches and handrails as the first traffic arrived from the big Bailey Bridge.  We finished the job at about 1500 hours, in almost exactly 24 hours non-stop.  It was a beauty!


Division vehicles then poured over the Bailey span at Wissen and our expedient bridge just beyond to accompany their doughboys already punching into the Ruhr Pocket.  At first the going was slow.  We had many road craters to fill, blown bridges to bypass, log barricades to clear, and mines to remove.  Four German divisions faced the 78th Division north of the Sieg River: the 62nd, 59th and 363rd Volksgrenedier and the 11th Panzer[126].  They threw in their biggest and best tanks, their self-propelled artillery, and flak batteries firing antipersonnel rounds to stop us.  But the hard fighting men of the 78th could not be stopped. 


With the Luftwaffe destroyed as an effective force, our division’s antiaircraft battalion attached two firing batteries to each forward infantry regiment, providing powerful direct antipersonnel fire support to our advancing infantrymen.  So effective was this fire that many Germans surrendered before engaging in a firefight.[127]


Our division’s daily count of prisoners taken reached a record high of 9186.[128] Our doughboys took many towns with German speaking soldiers calling the Burgermeister on the telephone and telling them to surrender their towns or else.  In most cases, white sheets  soon fluttered from town windows and the towns surrendered without more ado.  Public-address systems on tanks also blared out surrender messages to achieve the same effect.  When the Krauts responded with machine-gun fire or mortars, our troops would withdraw several yards, call for artillery, and shell the town.  When the barrage ended, our GI’s raced in and quickly overpowered bewildered and shaken defenders.[129] One of our 78th Recon  troopers  described our capturing of towns as follows:


       We had a sergeant by the name of Doug Linn who was a native born German.  His family had been run out of Germany and Linn hated the Germans with a fury…  Sergeant Linn had picked up a bullhorn somewhere and used it to broadcast messages to the Germans when we neared a village.  He would yell at them in German, ‘Attention, attention!  We are Americans and we are coming to capture your village.  Do not shoot because if you do, we will shoot your village to pieces.  Put out your white sheets.  Do not shoot!  If you wound an American, we will burn your village and kill everyone in it.’  The Germans believed him because this is exactly what they would do under the same conditions.  Clearly, Linn saved many American lives with his broadcasts.  Sometimes, our soldiers would fire a burst of .50 caliber machine gun tracers over a village and move in when they heard German trucks start up on the other side of the village.  The Krauts raced away rather than facing our armor’s .50 caliber machine guns.


       A Home Guard unit of about forty men and large boys from the area defended one village.  When they saw and heard us, they gave up without a shot and we gathered them together in the Village Square.  I was watching them carefully with my machine-gun ready, just in case.  The women and kids of the village gathered also to watch what was happening.  I saw one of the women wave shyly to the captain of the unit and he nodded his head to her.  I asked her if that were her husband and she said he was.  “Go and kiss him goodbye,” I told her and she did to the applause of the other women.  We felt kindly to these Germans since they hadn’t put up a fight.  We loaded them up, sitting all over our jeeps, and drove them back down the road to turn them in.  One boy showed me his home as we passed by and I had him wave to his parents so they would know he was OK.  We treated this group well, but if they had put up a tough fight, it would have been different.[130]


Our decentralized mode of operating functioned well as we advanced into the Ruhr Pocket. With our infantry battalions advancing along different roads some six to eight miles a day, my platoons accompanied them clearing all obstacles encountered.  There were days when we advanced eleven miles through difficult terrain.  The roads were crowded with mobs of released slave laborers and columns of captured prisoners marching to the rear.  Sometimes our infantry mounted trucks and advanced faster.  I devoted much of my time to keeping track of the tactical boundaries for my platoons.   We swept forward so rapidly that occasionally our engineers captured towns in advance of the infantry.  This was mobile warfare at its best.


Engineer patrols were constantly probing ahead of the attack, seeking routes to bypass obstacles and continue our drive unimpeded.[131] In our zeal to clear obstacles in our way, we sometimes found ourselves out in front of the advancing infantry.  On one such occasion, I followed a jeep up over a hill, thinking we were still behind the infantry.  When the jeep stopped, an American three-star general stepped out of it.  It was our Corps Commander, Lieutenant General Mathew Ridgeway, out checking on the rate of advance!  Always glad to let someone else draw the fire of enemy out front, the infantry seldom warned us when we advanced beyond them.  Needless to say, our infantry were red-faced when they found their corps commander ahead of them!


When we had penetrated halfway into the Ruhr Pocket, Lieutenant Siegele was passing across the front of his infantry battalion when a German tank poked its nose around a corner, aiming its gun directly at Siegele.  Sieg and his driver leaped out of their jeep just as the tank shot it right off the road.  They managed to scramble back to our lines, and I lent Sieg my jeep until his was replaced. 


In the meantime, I used a captured German Army Volkswagen. So many of our division soldiers were driving all over in such captured Volkswagens, using up so much Army gasoline that Division had prohibited further use of such vehicles.  Nevertheless, I decided to disregard this order temporarily in the interests of quickly redressing Sieg’s loss in combat effectiveness.  Shortly thereafter, an officer had to go back to Division Rear in Gummersbach to pick up the monthly of my soldiers.  Since my executive officer was absent and all three platoon leaders were out with their men, I went back in the Volkswagen.  At Division Rear, an MP stopped me for using the Volkswagen and I explained that I was using it to avoid losing the use of a jeep in combat.  However, his  orders required him to cite me, so I got a ticket in combat!  I continued using the Volkswagen another day or so until Sieg’s jeep was replaced and heard nothing further about my ticket. I suspect the MP’s processing my ticket accepted my story.


Just a couple of days later, the Germans captured Sieg’s platoon sergeant, Sergeant Steffen, up front with one of his men.  Then Sieg was captured briefly, only to escape within a couple of hours.  The German tankers who captured Sieg put him on the back of their tank and gave him a wild ride as they dashed back and forth trying to elude Americans attacking both ends of the road.  When Americans began firing at the tank, Sieg managed to jump off and hide until our infantry reached him.  What a relief it was to get him back, safe and whole!


Sergeant Steffen, too, had had quite an experience as a prisoner of the Germans.  Having no way to evacuate him as a prisoner, his retreating captors took him along with them.  When they fell back through their hometown, one German soldier took Steffen home to visit his family.  They then got haircuts together from a German barber.  Later as they were falling back on foot with a single kitchen truck, they came under US artillery fire.  In trying to drive out of the shellfire, the inept Kraut truck driver got the truck stuck cross-wise in the road.  To save the truck and their source of food, Steffen pushed the driver aside and drove the truck to safety.  He continued driving the truck for a couple more days until our forces recaptured him.  He was an outstanding sergeant whom we were delighted to get back!


When the Germans realized we had them surrounded in the Ruhr Pocket, they became demoralized, and our work toward the end consisted mainly of clearing abandoned vehicles and debris from the roads so our attacking armor and vehicles could continue unhindered.[132] The crush of prisoners became so great that up to eighty were standing in each two-and-a-half truck carrying them to the rear.


On the 12th of April President Roosevelt died, but we were so engrossed in fighting that we didn’t realize this for several days.  We Americans are deeply indebted to President Roosevelt for how well he prepared us for the war and how he led us almost up the end in Europe.


The Ruhr Pocket provided its share of humor.  For example, three GI’s riding captured horses in a circus-like procession escorted a column of almost a thousand prisoners dressed in every uniform imaginable.  On another occasion, an officer on an urgent mission encountered a couple of Krauts who wanted to surrender.  Not even pausing to take their pistols, he waved to them to sit on some steps.  When he returned about half an hour later, twenty-seven Krauts awaited him on the steps!


As we approached Wuppertal, my company suffered its final combat casualty when a collapsing building crushed Private First Class Anthony R. Buccigrossi while he was removing rubble from the road into Wuppertal.  What a tragedy to that this fine little scrapper had survived all of our time in Germany until this very last day of fighting!


On the 15th of April the city of Wuppertal (largest city in the Pocket) was taken by phone. And its 400,000 inhabitants surrendered to our 78th Division.[133] Upon hearing that the Burgomeister of Wuppertal had been directed to collect all pistols in town for immediate surrender, one enterprising supply sergeant managed to get there before the troops arrived and had his full choice of souvenir pistols.[134]


The following day, our company advanced into Wuppertal.  As usual, First Sergeant Titus found us one of the best houses in town.  It had a large swimming pool and large picture windows opened by electric motors. Clearly, it was the home of some industrial magnate.


The other day, we set up our command post in a beautiful home full of all sorts of modern conveniences.  The living room had a huge picture window opened by electric motors.  My room in the master bedroom was finer than any others previously occupied.  The bathroom had a fixture peculiar to Europe, I believe.  It is called a bidet and is something like a toilet equipped with a spray for quickly bathing one’s private parts.  I’d much prefer to take a complete shower.


            The last few days of the war have gone quite rapidly with us.  It is yet too recent for me to say more than that I have learned a lot in my profession and about men.  I regret that some of our American soldiers appear to be as brutal and barbarous as German soldiers.  I’ve seen some incidents where our men seemed no more civilized..  Mob, or mass, psychology prevails sometimes, and men can certainly become as drunk with victory--and as unruly and destructive--as when full of liquor.  I shall not write of the specific incidents, since I’m ashamed to admit Americans did them.  Germany has become much like our dear Southland after Lee’s surrender.  Hoards of people roam over it --many of them freed slave-laborers that pillage the food stores, and threaten, and even harm, their past masters.  We often are called upon to stop them.  They constitute a true menace to reconstruction of this land and the coming peace.  (18 Apr 45)


The taking of Wuppertal marked the finish of fighting for our 78th Division.  It was without sorrow that our 128 days of continuous fighting had come to an end.  None of us could view the past few months without memories, so many of them tragic.  Nor does a man endure great hardship, fear,--and the uncertainty of living from day to day-- without acquiring maturity and stature.  The effects of these war experiences will not be lightly cast off.  As years go by, the recollections of ice covered foxholes, incoming shells and injured buddies will grow dim; but the memories of friendships formed during common danger will remain bright.[135]


In eleven days our division had advanced fifty miles and captured 47,581 prisoners, including seven general officers.[136] In this period, our 311th Infantry took 266 towns, overran 149 square miles of territory and captured over 15,000 prisoners and large quantities of military equipment.  Prisoners taken were from forty-three regiments or separate units, including eleven divisions, two brigades, two Army Corps, an Army Group, and an Air Force headquarters and a General Headquarters.  The Ruhr Pocket was not exactly a picnic--the Regiment lost thirty-seven killed in action and 218 wounded.[137]


As I reflect on those intensely active days of combat, I realize how fortunate I was to have such fine help in our dedicated officers and noncommissioned officers in my company.  We were also blessed in the many fine, innovative, and hardworking soldiers we had in the company. 


Our first platoon under Lieutenant “Sieg” Siegele seemed to encounter the most intense combat.  Siegele himself was brave, possibly too brave for his own good, and his platoon was very close-knit. As a result, each time they lost a man, the platoon went into a funk.  It just couldn’t do anything for the rest of the day.  Accordingly, when I learned they’d lost a man, I’d check what they were doing, and whether it could wait until they were back in action the next day.  If not, I’d assign it to another platoon.


The second platoon was under Lieutenant Glendon Timm, a solid and determined man who always called a spade a spade.   They were the platoon that built the most bridges in combat - near Euskirchen, near Buell, and across the creek near Wissen.  Timm was completely bald, including his eyebrows, mustache, and beard.  He just never had to shave.  Just after we entered combat, I noticed that when his men took off their helmets, they were all bald!  That whole platoon had shaved their heads in the cold of winter!  What a great manifestation of platoon morale!  They were with that lieutenant all the way!  Like their leader, the second platoon was as solid as a rock.


The third platoon under Lieutenant Bill Monroe was well organized and innovative.  They were the ones who were most aggressive in organizing our defense as infantry during the Battle of the Bulge.  They were also the ones who improvised with horse-drawn sleds at Huppenbroich.  And later on the Rhine River, they were the ones who commandeered German boats to resupply our forces and evacuate casualties before we had two-way traffic across the Rhine.


And company headquarters functioned exceptionally well under the general direction of Lieutenant Maurice Phelan (who left to command A Company after leading the patrol into the Schwammenauel Dam and was promoted to captain) and the detailed direction of big and burly First Sergeant Glenn Titus throughout combat.  A natural athlete, Titus enjoyed enormous respect from us all.  He managed our company administration with the able assistance of our motor sergeant, Staff Sergeant DeFriese; our mess sergeant Staff Sergeant Pearson; and our supply sergeant, Sergeant Peterson.  This left me free to focus almost exclusively on our intensely challenging combat engineer mission, ably assisted by our radio operator, Technician Fourth Class Rockerfeller. 


Many months together in training and several more in continuous combat had forged our fine officers, noncommissioned officers, and men into an extremely effective fighting team!


[117] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, p. 50.

[118]Ruhr Pocket, Flash, Mar/Jun 95, p. 116.

[119] Harold E. Hench, “The Remagen Bridge - A Division Hq, Version,” Rhine Journey, p. 51.

[120] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, pp. 52-56.

[121] Lightning History of 78th Inf. Div., Infantry Journal Press, Wash, DC, 1947, pp. 210-211.

[122] Combat journal of Timberwolf Regt.,78th Lightning Div., WWII 1944-45, 311 Inf., pp. 55-57.

[123] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, p. 57

[124] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, p. 59.

[125] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, pp. 57-58.

[126] Gardner Hatch, 78th Infantry Division, (Paducah: Turner Pub. Co., 1987), p. 39.

[127] Flash, Dec 92, p. 69.

[128] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, p. 60.

[129] Lightning History of 78th Inf. Div., Infantry Journal Press, Wash, DC, 1947, pp. 216-217.

[130] Carl Sumpter, “Recollections of the 78th Cav. Recon. Troop,” Flash, Sep 91, p.78.

[131] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, p. 60.

[132] History, 303rd Engineer (C) Battalion, published in Berlin, 1945, p. 60.

[133] Gardner Hatch, 78th Infantry Division, (Paducah: Turner Pub. Co., 1987), p. 41.

[134] Combat journal of Timberwolf Regt., 78th Lightning Div., WWII 1944-45, 311 Inf., p. 62.

[135] Combat journal of Timberwolf Regt., 78th Lightning Div. WWII 1944-45, 311 Inf., p. 62.

[136] Gardner Hatch, 78th Infantry Division, (Paducah: Turner Pub. Co., 1987), p. 41.

[137] Combat journal of Timberwolf Regt., 78th Lightning Div., WWII 1944-45, 311 Inf., p. 61.